Credentials

Awards

PERFORMS® was originally developed in the late 1980s by Professor Alastair Gale in association with the NHS Breast Screening Programme in the UK. Since then it has been iteratively updated and expanded to meet the needs of screening radiologists and changing screening technology. The scheme has been implemented annually across the UK for over 25 years and provides individual radiologists with insight into their skills in identifying early signs of cancer on difficult mammographic cases as well as an anonymous peer review of their performance. Detailed statistical analyses of performance allows individuals to be helped to improve their skills.

Performs


The President’s Medal, Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors (2010)

Lord Stafford award for ‘Innovation Achieved’ finalist (2010)

Loughborough University Enterprise Award (2009).

Cum Laude research award, SPIE International Medical Imaging conference, 2004, 2005, 2007 and 2012

Awards - Alastair

Professor Alastair Gale


Chartered Ergonomist and Human Factors Specialist, Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors (2015)

Otto Edholm award, the Ergonomics Society (2007)

Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Radiologists (2006)

Fellow of the Ergonomics Society (1998), subsequently a Fellow of the Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors

Honorary Member of the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) (1997)

Honorary Member of the RCR Breast Group (1992)

Fellow of the British Psychological Society (1984)

Awards Yan

Dr Yan Chen


Honorary Member of the Royal College of Radiologists (2014)

Cum Laude award for best research, SPIE International Medical Imaging conference, 2012

 

 

Publications

 

Key publications which summarise the PERFORMS scheme


Gale A.G.: Maintaining quality in the UK breast screening program (keynote conference address) In D.J. Manning & C. Abbey (Eds.) SPIE Medical Imaging 2010: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment (2010) Gale A.G. & Scott H.: Measuring Radiology Performance in Breast Screening. In M.Michell (ed.) Contemporary Issues in Cancer Imaging – Breast Cancer, Cambridge UP, Cambridge, (2010) Gale A.G.: PERFORMS – a self assessment scheme for radiologists in breast screening. In Seminars in Breast Disease: Improving and monitoring mammographic interpretative skills, 2003, 6(3), 148-152

Publications by year


2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990, 1989, 1988, 1987, 1986, 1985, 1984

2015

Chen Y., James J., Turnbull A., Gale A.: The Use of Lower Resolution Viewing Devices for Mammographic Interpretation: Implications for Education and Training. European Radiology (in press)

2014

Chen Y., Dong L., Gale A.G.: Are abnormalities missed in the PERFORMS self-assessment scheme due to visual or cognitive factors? Breast Cancer Research 2014, 16 (Suppl 1):O5

Gale A.G., Chen Y.: Breast Screening in Japan: could an educational image self-assessment scheme help? AOCR, 2014

Chen Y., Dong L., Gale A.G. Are abnormalities missed in the PERFORMS self-assessment scheme due to visual or cognitive factors? BSBR, 2014

2013

Chen Y., Gale A.G., Evanoff M.: Does routine breast screening practice over-ride display quality in reporting enriched test sets? In C.K. Abbey & C.R. Mello-Thoms (eds.) SPIE Medical Imaging 2013: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. 2013.

Dong L., Chen Y., Gale A.G.: Breast screening: understanding case difficulty and the nature of errors. In C.K. Abbey & C.R. Mello-Thoms (eds.) SPIE Medical Imaging 2013: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. 2013.

2012

Chen Y., Gale A.G., Evanoff M.: Performance differences across the Atlantic when UK and USA radiologists read the same set of test screening cases. ? In C.K. Abbey & C.R. Mello-Thoms (eds.) SPIE Medical Imaging 2012: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. 2012

Dong L., Chen Y., Gale A.G. & Chakraborty D.P.: A potential method to identify poor breast screening performance? In C.K. Abbey & C.R. Mello-Thoms (eds.) SPIE Medical Imaging 2012: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. 2012

Chen Y., Gale A.G.: A large scale study of the effects of introducing digital mammography into the UK. European Conference on Radiology 2012.

Gale A.G. & Chen Y.: Radiological Informatics in Breast Screening: towards improved radiologists’ performance. In Chen Q., Huan J., Xu Y., Zhang T., Wang L. (eds.) IEEE 5th International Conference on Bio-Medical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI 2012)

2011

Darker I.T., Chen Y., Gale A.G.: Health professionals' agreement on density judgements and successful abnormality identification within the UK Breast Screening Programme. In D.J. Manning & C. K. Abbey (eds.). SPIE Medical Imaging 2011: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. 2011

Chen Y., Gale A.G., Turnbull A. James J.: Is image manipulation necessary to interpret digital mammographic images efficiently? In D.J. Manning & C. K. Abbey (eds.). SPIE Medical Imaging 2011: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. 2011

Gale A.G. & Chen Y.: Radiological Informatics in Breast Screening: towards improved radiologists’ performance. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, IEEE, 2011

Chen Y., James J., Turnbull A., Scott H., Gale A.G.: Breast screening: the use of non-clinical displays for mammographic interpretation training. European Conference on Radiology 2011.

Chen Y., Gale A.G., Evanoff M.G. & Zakir U.: Cross-Atlantic Differences in Reading the Same Breast Screening Cases. Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13(Suppl 1): P27.

Dong L., Chen Y., Gale A.G.: Early identification of substandard breast screening performers. Breast Cancer Research 2011, 13 (Suppl 1):P13

2010

Darker I.T., Gale A.G., Chen Y.: Variability in film reader estimates of breast density in the PERFORMS scheme, Breast Cancer Research 2010, 12 Suppl 3):P42

Chen Y., James J., Evans A., Turnbull A., Gale A.G.: An investigation of workstation image manipulation usage when examining FFDM images. Breast Cancer Research 2010, 12 (Suppl 3):P9

Gale A.G. & Scott H.: Measuring Radiology Performance in Breast Screening. In M. Michell (ed.) Contemporary Issues in Cancer Imaging – Breast Cancer, Cambridge UP, Cambridge

Chen Y. & Gale A.G.: Using Eye Gaze in Intelligent Interactive Imaging Training. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction, International conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Hong Kong.

Gale A.G.: Maintaining quality in the UK breast screening program (keynote conference address) In D.J. Manning & C. Abbey (Eds.) SPIE Medical Imaging 2010: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment

Chen Y., Scott H.J. & Gale A.G.: Breast Screening: visual search as an aid for digital mammographic interpretation training, In D.J. Manning & C. Abbey (Eds.) SPIE Medical Imaging 2010: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment

Scott H.J. & Gale A.G.: Mammographic feature type and reader variability by occupation: an ROC study, In D.J. Manning & C. Abbey (Eds.) SPIE Medical Imaging 2010: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment

Chen Y., James J., Turnbull A., Scott H. & Gale A.G.: Is image manipulation necessary in digital mammographic interpretation? In Proceedings of the European Conference on Radiology

Chen Y., & Gale A.G.: Mammographic interpretation training: how could low cost display devices help? InDigital Mammography. J. Marti, A. Oliver, J. Freixenet, & R. Marti (eds). Springer.

Chen Y., Gale A.G.: Intelligent Computing Applications based on Eye Gaze: their role in Medical Image Interpretation. Edited proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Computing (Springer), Changsha, China.

Chen Y., Evans A., James J., Turnbull A.& Gale A.: The effects of image manipulation on digital mammographic interpretation, Symposium Mammographicum, British J. Radiology online.

Gale A.G. & Chen Y.: The new digital PERFORMS Self Assessment Scheme, Symposium Mammographicum, British J. Radiology online.

2009
Scott H.J., Evans A., Gale A.G., Murphy A. & Reed J.: The relationship between real life breast screening and an annual self assessment scheme. In B. Sahiner & D.J. Manning (Eds.) SPIE Medical Imaging 2009: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, Vol 7263, ppE1–E9

Chen, Y.; Gale A.G.; Scott HJ.: Mammographic interpretation training in the UK: current difficulties and future outlook. In B. Sahiner & D.J. Manning (Eds.) SPIE Medical Imaging 2009: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, Vol 7263, pp C1 – C10

Yap M.H. & Gale A.G.: Individualised Grid-enabled Mammographic Training System. In K.M. Siddiqui & B.J. Liu ( Eds.); Medical Imaging 2009: Advanced PACS-based Imaging Informatics and Therapeutic Applications, 72640V.

Gale A.G., Visualisation and perception, European Radiology, 2009, 19(1), S115

Gale, AG (2009). Animating the inanimate: visual inspection from the medical to the security domains. In: P D Bust (ed), Contemporary Ergonomics, Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society Annual Conference, 347-353, Taylor and Francis (London).

Chen Y., Gale A.G., Scott H., Wang X.Y., Liu H.H. & Xie A.M.: Delivering mammographic interpretation training in China: can low-cost computer displays help? BJR Congress Series -Proceedings of the UK Radiological Congress 2009, p106.

Scott H. & Gale A.G.: Which film reading behaviours are most optimum for best performance? A study of those who perform best and least well on the PERFORMS self assessment scheme. BJR Congress Series -Proceedings of the UK Radiological Congress 2009, p56

Gale, A. G. & Scott, H.J., “Reducing Medical Errors in Breast Cancer Screening” In HCI International 2009- posters. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 668-671. Berlin Heidelberg: Lecture Notes in Computer Science Series of Springer.

Chen Y, Gale A, Scott H, Evans A, James J. Computer-Based Learning to Improve Breast Cancer Detection Skills. In Jacko J.A. (Ed.). Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Part IV: Interacting in Various Application Domains; Springer; 2009, pp 49-57.

Chen Y., Gale A.G. & Scott H.J.: Breast screening: a vision supported healthcare training. In Proceedings of the 17th World Congress on Ergonomics: IEA 2009.

Chen Y., James J., Gale A.G.: How important is mammographic image manipulation when examining digital screening cases? Breast Cancer Research 2009, 11(Suppl 2):P7

Scott H.J. & Gale A.G.: Breast screening unit size and performance on self-assessment (PERFORMS). Breast Cancer Research 2009, 11(Suppl 2):P13

Chen Y., Gale A.G., Evans A.: The feasibility of vision-supported computer-based training in digital mammography. Breast Cancer Research 2009, 11(Suppl 2):P29

2008
Gale, A. G. & Scott, H.J.: Patient Safety in Radiology: An Example from Breast Screening. In Proceedings of Improving Patient Safety 2008 Conference, Hignett S., Norris B., Catchpole K., Hutchinson A. & Tapley S. (Eds.), IPS2008 Improving Patient Safety 2008 'From Safe Design to Safe Practice', Ergonomics Society, Loughborough, 2008, pp. 345-349.

Yap M, Gale A.G. & Scott HJ.: Generic Infrastructure for Medical Informatics (GIMI): the Development of a Mammographic Training System. In Krupinski E. (ed.) Digital Mammography, Springer, Berlin. 2008

Scott H.J., Gale A.G. & Hill S.: How are false negative cases perceived by mammographers? Which abnormalities are misinterpreted and which go undetected? In D. Manning and B Sahiner (Eds.). Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. Proceedings of SPIE 6917:13, 1-11, 2008

Yan Chen, Alastair Gale, Hazel Scott: “Mammographic interpretation training: how useful is handheld technology?” ? In D. Manning and B Sahiner (Eds.). Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. Proceedings of SPIE 6917;12, 1-10, 2008

Yan Chen, Alastair Gale, Hazel Scott: The possibility of 3W (Whatever required, Whenever, Wherever) Mammographic Interpretation Training. BJR Congress Series -Proceedings of the UK Radiological Congress 2008, p63. (edited conf proceedings)

Chen Y., Gale A.G. & Scott H.: Anytime, Anywhere Mammographic Interpretation Training. In P.D. Bust (Ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics 2008. Taylor & Francis, London, 2008.

Scott H.J. & Gale A.G.: What makes a good mammographer? Looking at the homogeneity of those groups who perform best and least well on the PERFORMS self assessment scheme. Breast Cancer Research Vol 10, S19, 2008.

Chen Y, Scott H.J. Mammographic interpretation training: what exactly do film-readers want? Breast Cancer Research Vol 10, S22, 2008.

2007
Scott H.J. & Gale A.G.: How much is enough: factors affecting the optimal interpretation of breast screening mammograms. In Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. Y Jiang and B Sahiner (Eds.) Proceedings of SPIE 2007

Chambers S. & Gale A.G.: The role of perception in ultrasound image interpretation. . In P.D. Bust (Ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics 2007. Taylor & Francis, London, 2007.

2006
Scott H.J., and Gale A.G. Does mammographic practice affect film reading style – Breast Screening vs. Symptomatic Radiologists? In Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. MP. Eckstein and Y Jiang (Eds.) Proceedings of SPIE 2006

Gale A.G. & Scott H.J.: Keeping abreast of the times. In P.D. Bust (Ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics 2006. Taylor & Francis, London, 2006.

Scott H.J. & Gale A.G.: Breast screening: PERFORMS identifies key mammographic training needs. British Journal of Radiology, 2006, 79: S127-S133

Scott H.J. & Gale A.G.: Symptomatic and screening film readers – a difference in reading style? Breast Cancer Research 2006, 8(1), S4

Gale A.G. & Chambers S.: Breast ultrasound training scheme. Breast Cancer Research 2006, 8(1), S13

2005
Scott H.J., and Gale A.G.: Breast screening: when is a difficult case truly difficult and for whom? In Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. MP. Eckstein and Y Jiang (eds.) Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5749, 2005

Hatton J.W., Wooding D.S., Gale A.G. & Scott H.J.: Prompting in computer aided detection – a novel approach. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Digital Mammography. E. Pisano (Ed.)

2004
Scott H.J., Gale A.G., & Wooding D.S. : Breast Screening Technologists: does real-life case volume affect performance? In: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, D.P. Chakraborty & M.P. Eckstein (eds.) Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5372, 2004

Scott H.J., Gale A.G., & Wooding D.S.: European Breast Screening Performance: does case volume matter? In: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, D.P. Chakraborty & M.P. Eckstein (eds.) Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5372, 2004.

Hatton J.W., Wooding D.S., Gale A.G. & Scott H.J.: The Effect of Novel Prompts upon Radiologists’ Visual Search of Mammograms. In: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, D.P. Chakraborty & M.P. Eckstein (eds.) Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5372, 2004

Gale A.G., Scott H. & Wooding D.S.: Breast Screening: Experience Versus Expertise. In P.T. McCabe (Ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics 2004 CRC Press, London, 2004

2003
Hatton J.W., Wooding D.S., Gale A.G. & Purdy K.J.: The CAD interface in breast screening: effect of image scale and detail upon transcription accuracy. In Lemke H.U., Vannier M.W., Farman A.G., Doi K. & Reiber J.H.C. (Eds.) Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, Elsevier, Amsterdam,1392, 2003.

Hatton J., Wooding, D.S. & Gale A.G. Accuracy of transcribing locations on mammograms: implications for the user interface for recording and assessing breast screening decisions. . In Medical Imaging 2003: image perception and performance. In Krupinski E. (ed.) Proceedings of SPIE Medical Imaging conference Vol. 5034, 2003.

Gale A.G.: PERFORMS – a self assessment scheme for radiologists in breast screening. In Seminars in Breast Disease: Improving and monitoring mammographic interpretative skills, 2003, 6(3), 148-152

2002

Esserman L., Cowley H., Eberle C., Kirkpatrick A., Chang S., Berbaum K., & Gale A.G.: Improving the Accuracy of Mammography: Volume and Outcome Relationships. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2002, Vol. 94, No. 5, 369-375, March 6

Hatton J., Wooding D.S., Purdy K.J., Bateman S.M., Gale A.G. and Cowley H.C..: Recording breast screening decisions: human factors and new technology. Breast Cancer Res 2002, 4(Suppl. 1):37

2001
Gale A.G., Mugglestone M.D., Cowley H.C. & Wooding D.S.: Human factors considerations for CAD implementation in breast screening. In Yaffe M.J. (Ed.) Digital mammography IWDM 2000. Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, USA. 2001.

2000

1999
Cowley, H C and Gale, A G.: Breast cancer screening: comparison of radiologists performance in a self-assessment scheme and in actual breast screening. In Medical Imaging 1999: Image and Performance, E.A. Krupinski (ed), Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3663. 1999.

1998
Cowley H.C. & Gale A.G.: Non-radiologists and CAD systems in breast cancer screening. In: N Karssemeijer, M Thijssen, J Hendriks & L van Eerning (Eds.). Digital Mammography; Nijmegan 1998. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.

Mugglestone M.D. & Gale A.G.: CAD implementation: implications from real life visual search of screening cases. In: N Karssemeijer, M Thijssen, J Hendriks & L van Eerning (Eds.). Digital Mammography; Nijmegan 1998. Kluwer academic publishers, 1998.

Mugglestone M.D. & Gale A G.. 1998. How do radiologists interpret mammographic images? British Journal of Radiology

Carr,D., Mugglestone M.D & Gale A.G., 1998. The role of visual search in the interpretation of diagnostic images. British Journal of Radiology

1997
Mugglestone M D, Gale A G, Wilson A R M Perceptual processes involved in mammographic film interpretation, In Kundel H. (Ed.) Medical Imaging 1997: Image Perception. SPIE Vol. 3036, 1997.

Cowley H.C. & Gale A.G.: Time of Day Effects on Mammographic Film Reading Performance. In Kundel H. (Ed.) Medical Imaging 1997: Image Perception. SPIE Vol. 3036, 1997.

Gale A.G.: Human response to visual stimuli. In Hendee W. & Wells P. (Eds.) Perception of Visual Information - second edition, ( New York) Springer Verlag, 1997.

Gale A.G.: Ergonomics of screening. Scan, 1997

1996
Gale, A.G. and Cowley, H.C.: Analysis of breast screening results. In: Doi, M L Giger, R M Nishikawa & R.A. Scmidt (Eds.), Digital Mammography ’96. K Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996.

Mugglestone, M.D., Lomax, R. Gale, A.G. and Wilson, A.R.M.: The effect of prompting on the human observer. In: K Doi, M L Giger, R M Nishikawa & R.A. Scmidt (Eds.) Digital Mammography ’96., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996.

Cowley H.C., & Gale A.G.: Approaches to computer assisted training in mammographic screening. In: K Doi, M L Giger, R M Nishikawa & R.A. Scmidt (Eds.). Digital Mammography ’96. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996.

Whatmough P., Gale A.G., and Wilson A.R.M.: Do radiologists agree on the importance of mammographic features? In: K Doi, M L Giger, R M Nishikawa & R.A. Scmidt (Eds.), Digital Mammography ’96. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996.

Cowley H. and Gale A.G.: minimising human error in the detection of breast cancer. In: S A Robertson (Ed) Contemporary Ergonomics 1996. Taylor and Francis, London, 1996.

Cowley H.C., Gale A.G. and Wilson A.R.M.: Mammographic training sets for improving breast cancer detection. In H.L.Kundel (Ed.) Medical Imaging 1996: Image Perception, Proc. SPIE 2712. 1996.

Whatmough P., Gale A.G. and Wilson A.R.M.: Computer Assisted Education and Inter-Disciplinary Breast Cancer Diagnosis. In Yongmin Kim (Ed.) Medical Imaging 1996: Image Display, Proc. SPIE 2707. 1996.

Lee L., Cowley H.C., Gale A.G. and Wilson A.R.M.: Can radiographers double read screening mammograms? British Journal of Radiology, 1996, 69 (supplement), 297.

Wass K., Gale A.G. and Cowley H.C.: The use of hand held technology for the collection of mammographic information. British Journal of Radiology, 1996, 69 (supplement), 293.

Carr D., Gale A.G. and Mugglestone M.D.: Can radiographers interpret medical images effectively? British Journal of Radiology, 1996, 69 (supplement), 283.

Worthington B.S. and Gale A.G.: Evidence for a global rather than feature by feature image appraisal in a radiological task. British Journal of Radiology, 1996, 69 (supplement), 255.

Mugglestone M.D., Lomax R.,Gale A.G. and Wilson A.R.M.: Searching for breast cancer: the effect of prompting. British Journal of Radiology, 1996, 69 (supplement), 194.

Whatmough P., Gale A.G. and Wilson A.R.M.: Radiological agreement: a key factor in expert system development for mammography. British Journal of Radiology, 1966, 69 (supplement), 193.

1995
Whatmough P, Gale AG, & Wilson A R M.: Computer Assisted Education and Breast Cancer Diagnosis In Lemke, H.U., Imamura, K., Jaffe, C.C. & Vannier, M.W. (Eds.) Computer Assisted Radiology, Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 1995.

Mugglestone M D, Gale A G, & Wilson A R M.: Knowledge elicitation for mammographic expert systems. In Lemke, H.U., Imamura, K., Jaffe, C.C. & Vannier, M.W. (Eds.) Computer Assisted Radiology 1995, Berlin, Springer-Verlag.

Mugglestone M D , Gale A G, Cowley H C, Wilson A R M. Diagnostic performance on briefly presented mammographic images in H.L.Kundel (Ed.) Image Perception. Proc. SPIE Vol. 2436 pp 106-116,1995.

Cowley, H.C. & Gale, A.G.: Mammographic features not identified by radiologists in a self-assessment scheme. Proc. 4th Nottingham International Breast Cancer conference, Nottingham, 1995.

Mugglestone, M.D., Gale A.G. & Wilson, A.R.M.: Mammographic diagnosis in a glance. Proc. Rontgen Centenary Congress, Birmingham, 1995.

Goddard, C., Needham, G., Gilbert, F., Cowley, H.C. & Gale, A.G.: Pragmatic performance audit using receiver operating characteristic curves: a model for use in diagnostic radiology. Proc. Rontgen Centenary Congress. 1995.

Whatmough P., Gale, A.G. & Wilson, A.R.M.: Breast cancer diagnosis and computer assisted education. The Breast (1995).

Cowley, H.C. & Gale, A.G.: Performance of radiologists over two rounds of a self assessment scheme. The Breast (1995).

1994
Savage, C.J., Gale, A.G., Pawley, E.M. & Wilson, A.R.M.: To err is human, to compute divine? In: Gale, A.G., Astley, S., Dance, D. & Cairns, A.: (Co-eds.) Digital Mammography. (Amsterdam) Elsevier Science B.V. 1994.

Gale, A.G., Savage, C.J., Pawley, E.F. & Wilson, A.R.M.: Breast screening: visual search and observer performance. In H.L. Kundel (Ed.), Medical Imaging 1994: Image Perception. Proc. SPIE 2166, 1994.

Gale, A.G., Astley, S., Dance, D. & Cairns, A.: (Co-eds.) Digital Mammography (Amsterdam) Elsevier Science B.V., 1994.

1993
Gale, A.G. & Blairford C.G.: Workstation design for breast screening. In: Computer Aided Radiology, (Berlin) Springer Verlag,1993.

Gale, A.G., Wilson, A.R.M. & Roebuck, E.J.: Breast screening: defining the implementation criteria for computer assisted diagnosis. In: Computer Aided Radiology, (Berlin) Springer Verlag, 1993.

Blairford, C.G., Gale, A.G., Cobb, S.G. & Haslegrave, C.M.: Efficient design of mammographic multiviewers. In E.J. Lovesey (Ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics 1993, (London) Taylor & Francis, 1993.

Gale, A.G., Wilson A.R.M., & Roebuck, E.J.: Mammographic screening: radiological performance as a precursor to image processing. In Acharya, R.S. & Goldgof, D.B. (Eds.) Biomedical Image Processing and Biomedical Visualization, Proc. SPIE 1905,1993.

Gale A.G. & Walker G.E.. Visual search in breast cancer screening. In Brogan, D., Gale, A.G. and Carr, K. (Eds.) Visual Search II, (London) Taylor and Francis,1993.

Gale A.G.: Human response to visual stimuli. In Hendee W. & Wells P. (Eds.) Perception of Visual Information, (New York) Springer Verlag, 1993.

Blairford, C.G. & Gale, A.G.: Ergonomic requirements of multiviewers in breast screening. British Journal of Radiology, 66, 14 (1993).

Teh, J.M.Y., Gale, A.G., Boggis, C.R.M., Faragher, B. & Roebuck, E.J.: Breast screening in Chinese women: comparison of parenchymal patterns in Chinese and Caucasian women. British Journal of Radiology, 66, 14 (1993).

1992
Gale, A.G. Self assessment of radiologists' performance in breast screening. Rad, March, 1992

1991
Gale A.G. & Walker G.E. Cognitive factors in breast cancer screening. In Johnston M., Herbert M., Marteau T. (Eds.) European Health Psychology, (Leicester) British Psychological Society, 1991.

Gale A.G. & Walker G.E. An approach to computer-aided diagnosis in breast screening. In Lemke H.U., Rhodes M.L., Jaffe C.C. & Felix R. (Eds.) Computer Assisted Radiology, (Berlin) Springer Verlag, 1991.

Gale A.G. HCI in Breast Cancer Screening. In Lemke H.U., Rhodes M.L., Jaffe C.C. & Felix R. (Eds.) Computer Assisted Radiology, (Berlin) Springer Verlag, 1991.

Gale A.G. & Walker G.E. Design for performance: Quality assessment in a national breast screening programme. In Lovesay E. (Ed.) Ergonomics - design for performance, (London) Taylor & Francis 1991.

Gale A.G., Lim W., Evans A.J, Walker G.E. & Worthington B.S. Predicting outcome in mammography: parenchymal patterns and other approaches. British Journal of Radiology, 1991, 91.

Gale A.G., Walker G.E., Roebuck E.J., & Worthington B.S. Mammographic film interpretation. British Journal of Radiology, 1991, 64, 92.

Worthington, B.S. and Gale, A.G.: Objective evidence for the use of perceptual schemata in radiologic problem solving. Radiology, 1991, 181(p),279.

Gale, A.G. and Wilson A.R.M.: Evaluation of radiologists' performance in reading mammograms. British Journal of Radiology, 1991, 64,476.

1990
Gale, A.G., Walker, G.E., Roebuck, E.J., Wilson, A.R.M. & Worthington B.S. Mammographic screening: what do radiologists look for? British Journal of Radiology, 63, 1990, S52

Walker, G.E., Gale, A.G., Roebuck, E.J., Wilson, A.R.M. & Worthington B.S. The individual and training in mammographic screening. British Journal of Radiology, 63, 1990, S51

1989
Walker G.E., Gale A.G., Roebuck E.J., & Worthington B.S.: Training and aptitude for mammographic inspection. In Megaw E.D. (Ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics - 1989, (London) Taylor and Francis,1989.

Priestland N., Gale A.G., Roebuck E.J., & Worthington B.S.: A new bar coding system for use in breast cancer screening. In Megaw E.D. (Ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics - 1989, (London) Taylor and Francis,1989.

Gale A.G., de Silva E., Walker G.E., Roebuck E.J., & Worthington B.S.: Vigilance decrement and radiological reporting. In Megaw E.D. (Ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics - 1989, (London) Taylor and Francis,1989.

Priestland, R.N., Gale A.G., Roebuck E.J., & Worthington B.S.: Information technology in breast cancer screening. British Journal of Radiology, 62, 1989, S10.

Gale A.G., Walker G.E., Roebuck E.J., & Worthington B.S.: The quest for accuracy, consistency and uniformity of performance in mammographic screening: the systematic imperative. British Journal of Radiology, 62, 1989, S10.

1988
Walker G.E., Gale A.G., Roebuck E.J., & Worthington B.S.: Selection and training in breast cancer screening. In Hegarty J.R. and DeCann R.W. (Eds.), Psychology in Radiography II, (Stoke) Change Publications,1988.

Gale A.G.: Visual inspection of Radiographs. In Hegarty J.R. and DeCann R.W.( Eds.), Psychology in Radiography II, (Stoke) Change Publications,1988.

Gale A.G., de Silva E., Walker G.E., Roebuck E.J., & Worthington B.S.: Performance in a simulated basic breast screening task. British Journal of Radiology, 61, 1988,761.

Gale A.G., Walker G.E., Roebuck E.J., & Worthington B.S., Aptitude and training in mammography screening. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 1988,8,102.

Walker G.E., Gale A.G., Roebuck E.J., & Worthington B.S., Aptitude testing of mammogram readers. British Journal of Radiology, 61, 1988, 761.

Gale A.G., Walker G.E., Downey S., Roebuck E.J., & Worthington B.S.: The training and selection of radiograph readers in mammography. British Journal of Radiology, 1988, 725, 434.

1987
Gale A.G., Walker G.E., Roebuck E.J. & Worthington B.S.: Visual search training in mammography. In Luer G. & Lass U. (Eds.) Fourth European Conference on Eye Movements Vol. 1, (Gottingen) Hogrefe, 1987.

Gale A.G., Downey S.E., Roebuck E.J.& Worthington: Training in mammographic interpretation, British Journal of Radiology, 1987,60,814.

Gale A.G. Training for mammography screening programmes, Diagnostic Imaging, 1987, 9, 187-193.

Gale, A.G., Roebuck, E.J., Riley, P. & Worthington, B.S.: Computer aids to mammography diagnosis. British Journal of Radiology, 1987,60, 887-891.

1986
Gale A.G., Roebuck E.J. & Worthington B.S.: Mammography and computer assisted diagnosis. British Journal of Radiology, 1986, 59, 704, 823.

Gale A.G., Roebuck E.J. & Worthington B.S.: Computer assisted mammography in clinical practice: another set of problems to solve, Radiology, 1986, 161(p), 29.

Gale, A.G., Sole, K., Roebuck, E.J. & Worthington, B.S.: Computer Assisted Mammographic Diagnosis. British Journal of Radiology, (1986) 59: 702, 641.

1985
Gale A.G., Roebuck, E.J., Riley, P.J. & Worthington, B.S.: Computer aided diagnosis in mammography. In Lemke, H.U., Rhodes, M.L., Jaffee, C.C. & Felix, R. (Eds.). Computer Assisted Radiology, (Berlin) Springer-Verlag.1985.

1984

Gale A.G., Howe E., Roebuck E.J. & Worthington B.S.: Computer aided diagnosis in mammography. In Mould, R.F. (Ed.). Computers in Radiotherapy and Oncology, (Bristol). Adam Hilger.1984.

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